Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs). Contaminants of Concern
This new volume provides a timely study on the environmental challenges from a specific class of perfluorinated chemical compounds (PFCs) that are now being recognized as a worldwide health threat. Recent studies report that levels of classes of PFCs known as polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl (PFASs) exceed federally recommended safety levels in public drinking-water supplies for 6 million people in the United States and that as many as 100 million people could be at risk from exposure to these chemicals. These chemicals occur globally in wildlife and humans. Both PFCAs and PFSAs have been produced for more than 50 years, but have only become of interest to regulators and environmentalists since the late 1990s. Recent advances in analytical methodology has enabled widespread detection in the environment and humans at trace levels. These toxic chemicals have been found in outdoor and indoor air, surface and drinking water, house dust, animal tissue, human blood serum, and human breast milk. Of great concern to communities is the presence of these compounds in a number of drinking water supplies in the U.S. and other countries. This new volume provides a timely explanation of the chemicals, provides a detailed review of the regulations both in the US and European Community, explains the health risk literature, and then explores in great detail available treatment technologies. The volume is a must for public water supply facilities, industrial operations that have historically used these chemicals and face legacy pollution issues, policy makers and the general public.